GeoTiles.nl

Map - Town index - Tile index


Relevant towns and neighbourhoods

No overlapping towns found.

Tile 20GZ2

Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland

Point cloud

The aerial photograph closest to the acquisition date of the AHN iteration was overlaid on the point cloud to produce a colored version for visualisation purposes. Furthermore, for each point cloud a spatial index and textual summary, including elevation histogram, are provided. Please note that the images are not from the same flight, and may be years off. Therefore, small alignment errors and differences occur between them.

Zoom in on the map to see tiled versions (25 tiles of 1×1.25 km). Tiled versions typically fit into memory (RAM) are easier to handle and are especially suitable for parallel processing and Machine Learning.

Version Point cloud Spatial index Info License
AHN1 Ground 20gz2.laz.zip 9.4 MiB1 20gz2.lax 17 kiB 20gz2.txt 5 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Non-ground 20gz2.laz.zip 262 kiB1 20gz2.lax 48 kiB 20gz2.txt 11 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Merged 20GZ2.LAZ 9.6 MiB 20GZ2.LAX 20 kiB 20GZ2.txt 11 kiB Stuurgroep AHN (merged product by GeoTiles.nl)
Colored Available for sub-units only, zoom in to select. Remixed by GeoTiles.nl
AHN2 Ground g20gz2.laz.zip 498.0 MiB1 g20gz2.lax 529 kiB g20gz2.txt 6 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Non-ground u20gz2.laz.zip 508.3 MiB1 u20gz2.lax 521 kiB u20gz2.txt 30 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Merged 20GZ2.LAZ 1006.3 MiB 20GZ2.LAX 2.0 MiB 20GZ2.txt 30 kiB Stuurgroep AHN (merged product by GeoTiles.nl)
Colored Available for sub-units only, zoom in to select. Remixed by GeoTiles.nl
AHN3 Original C_20GZ2.LAZ 1.8 GiB C_20GZ2.LAX 1.8 MiB C_20GZ2.txt 37 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Colored Available for sub-units only, zoom in to select. Remixed by GeoTiles.nl
AHN4 Original C_20GZ2.LAZ 4.1 GiB C_20GZ2.LAX 2.0 MiB C_20GZ2.txt 42 kiB Het Waterschapshuis, public domain
Colored (Partially) available for sub-units. Remixed by GeoTiles.nl

1Size of the .laz file, contained in the archive.

2The point cloud is in the public domain and the aerial photograph available under CC-BY. However, the colored point cloud is a new product created by GeoTiles.nl.

File checksums (md5) are available for AHN1, AHN2 and AHN3.

Raster

Version DSM DTM ('maaiveld') License
5 meter ½ meter 5 meter ½ meter
AHN1 20gz2.tif.zip public domain
AHN2 r20gz2.tif.zip ahn2_5_20gz2.tif.zip i20gz2.tif.zip public domain *
AHN3 R5_20GZ2.ZIP R_20GZ2.ZIP M5_20GZ2.ZIP M_20GZ2.ZIP CC-0
AHN4 R5_20GZ2.zip R_20GZ2.zip M5_20GZ2.zip M_20GZ2.zip CC-0 [1, 2, 3, 4]

InSAR

Orbit CSV License
Ascending, 015
Ascending, 088 20GZ2.csv.xz 1.2 MiB 20GZ2.csv Rijkswaterstaat, CC-0
Ascending, 161
Descending, 037 20GZ2.csv.xz 1.4 MiB 20GZ2.csv Rijkswaterstaat, CC-0
Descending, 110 20GZ2.csv.xz 1.0 MiB 20GZ2.csv Rijkswaterstaat, CC-0
Descending, 139

Official documentation is only available in Dutch. Malformed rows, that do not adhere to the format as specified in the documentation, were removed from the data.

Data is compressed with xz-compression. Tools like Pandas are able to read those files transparently. Users of other tools may wish to decompress the files first. Windows users may use 7-Zip, Linux users are likely to have the unxz command available on their machine already.Uncompressed, equivalent, archives are hosted by Rijkswaterstaat.

Aerial photograph

Year Version GeoTiff Source License
2016 RGB RGB_20GZ2.tiff 63.5 MiB Beeldmateriaal, nlextract.nl CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_20GZ2.tiff 60.5 MiB CC-BY 4.0
2017 RGB RGB_20GZ2.tiff 52.1 MiB Beeldmateriaal, nlextract.nl CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_20GZ2.tiff 51.2 MiB CC-BY 4.0
2018 RGB RGB_20GZ2.tiff 53.3 MiB Beeldmateriaal, nlextract.nl CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_20GZ2.tiff 52.7 MiB CC-BY 4.0
2019 RGB RGB_20GZ2.tiff 44.6 MiB Beeldmateriaal CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_20GZ2.tiff 40.2 MiB CC-BY 4.0
2020 RGB RGB_20GZ2.tiff 42.0 MiB Beeldmateriaal CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_20GZ2.tiff 39.6 MiB CC-BY 4.0

Sub-tiles 20GZ2

Image adapted from OpenTopo.

Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland

Point cloud

These sub-tiles of 1×1.25 km are clipped from the original point cloud. Goal is to enable distributed processing of the point cloud. Therefore, a 25 m overlap to the neighbouring (sub-)tiles is added. Thanks to the overlap between sub-tiles, the sub-tiles can be processed independently and therefore parallel.

All other data sets on this website are only available in the main tiling schema.

Tile Version Point cloud Spatial index Info Residential areas License
20GZ2_01 AHN1 20GZ2_01.LAZ 1.1 MiB 20GZ2_01.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_01.txt 10 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_01.LAZ 114.5 MiB 20GZ2_01.LAX 99 kiB 20GZ2_01.txt 29 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_01.LAZ 129.5 MiB 20GZ2_01.LAX 86 kiB 20GZ2_01.txt 29 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_01.LAZ 343.7 MiB 20GZ2_01.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_01.txt 30 kiB
20GZ2_02 AHN1 20GZ2_02.LAZ 1.1 MiB 20GZ2_02.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_02.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_02.LAZ 83.4 MiB 20GZ2_02.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_02.txt 29 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_02.LAZ 123.9 MiB 20GZ2_02.LAX 86 kiB 20GZ2_02.txt 30 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_02.LAZ 191.0 MiB 20GZ2_02.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_02.txt 31 kiB
20GZ2_03 AHN1 20GZ2_03.LAZ 901 kiB 20GZ2_03.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_03.txt 9 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_03.LAZ 83.2 MiB 20GZ2_03.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_03.txt 26 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_03.LAZ 90.3 MiB 20GZ2_03.LAX 77 kiB 20GZ2_03.txt 27 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_03.LAZ 180.3 MiB 20GZ2_03.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_03.txt 20 kiB
20GZ2_04 AHN1 20GZ2_04.LAZ 843 kiB 20GZ2_04.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_04.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_04.LAZ 77.8 MiB 20GZ2_04.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_04.txt 26 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_04.LAZ 85.7 MiB 20GZ2_04.LAX 75 kiB 20GZ2_04.txt 28 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_04.LAZ 174.3 MiB 20GZ2_04.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_04.txt 22 kiB
20GZ2_05 AHN1 20GZ2_05.LAZ 891 kiB 20GZ2_05.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_05.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_05.LAZ 82.7 MiB 20GZ2_05.LAX 99 kiB 20GZ2_05.txt 29 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_05.LAZ 86.9 MiB 20GZ2_05.LAX 74 kiB 20GZ2_05.txt 23 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_05.LAZ 176.7 MiB 20GZ2_05.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_05.txt 26 kiB
20GZ2_06 AHN1 20GZ2_06.LAZ 743 kiB 20GZ2_06.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_06.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_06.LAZ 81.0 MiB 20GZ2_06.LAX 99 kiB 20GZ2_06.txt 28 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_06.LAZ 92.3 MiB 20GZ2_06.LAX 77 kiB 20GZ2_06.txt 28 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_06.LAZ 179.5 MiB 20GZ2_06.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_06.txt 28 kiB
20GZ2_07 AHN1 20GZ2_07.LAZ 824 kiB 20GZ2_07.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_07.txt 9 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_07.LAZ 89.0 MiB 20GZ2_07.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_07.txt 30 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_07.LAZ 113.8 MiB 20GZ2_07.LAX 83 kiB 20GZ2_07.txt 30 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_07.LAZ 196.9 MiB 20GZ2_07.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_07.txt 32 kiB
20GZ2_08 AHN1 20GZ2_08.LAZ 788 kiB 20GZ2_08.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_08.txt 9 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_08.LAZ 82.3 MiB 20GZ2_08.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_08.txt 26 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_08.LAZ 126.2 MiB 20GZ2_08.LAX 88 kiB 20GZ2_08.txt 27 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_08.LAZ 177.2 MiB 20GZ2_08.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_08.txt 23 kiB
20GZ2_09 AHN1 20GZ2_09.LAZ 760 kiB 20GZ2_09.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_09.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_09.LAZ 83.2 MiB 20GZ2_09.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_09.txt 14 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_09.LAZ 101.0 MiB 20GZ2_09.LAX 79 kiB 20GZ2_09.txt 33 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_09.LAZ 180.3 MiB 20GZ2_09.LAX 97 kiB 20GZ2_09.txt 30 kiB
20GZ2_10 AHN1 20GZ2_10.LAZ 702 kiB 20GZ2_10.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_10.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_10.LAZ 81.4 MiB 20GZ2_10.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_10.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_10.LAZ 85.8 MiB 20GZ2_10.LAX 81 kiB 20GZ2_10.txt 11 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_10.LAZ 172.4 MiB 20GZ2_10.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_10.txt 12 kiB
20GZ2_11 AHN1 20GZ2_11.LAZ 774 kiB 20GZ2_11.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_11.txt 9 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_11.LAZ 80.8 MiB 20GZ2_11.LAX 83 kiB 20GZ2_11.txt 23 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_11.LAZ 88.6 MiB 20GZ2_11.LAX 75 kiB 20GZ2_11.txt 27 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_11.LAZ 185.6 MiB 20GZ2_11.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_11.txt 22 kiB
20GZ2_12 AHN1 20GZ2_12.LAZ 736 kiB 20GZ2_12.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_12.txt 9 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_12.LAZ 99.2 MiB 20GZ2_12.LAX 99 kiB 20GZ2_12.txt 27 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_12.LAZ 113.8 MiB 20GZ2_12.LAX 77 kiB 20GZ2_12.txt 37 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_12.LAZ 220.2 MiB 20GZ2_12.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_12.txt 43 kiB
20GZ2_13 AHN1 20GZ2_13.LAZ 694 kiB 20GZ2_13.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_13.txt 10 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_13.LAZ 105.6 MiB 20GZ2_13.LAX 97 kiB 20GZ2_13.txt 26 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_13.LAZ 132.1 MiB 20GZ2_13.LAX 89 kiB 20GZ2_13.txt 27 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_13.LAZ 237.5 MiB 20GZ2_13.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_13.txt 34 kiB
20GZ2_14 AHN1 20GZ2_14.LAZ 690 kiB 20GZ2_14.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_14.txt 10 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_14.LAZ 93.1 MiB 20GZ2_14.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_14.txt 19 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_14.LAZ 148.5 MiB 20GZ2_14.LAX 91 kiB 20GZ2_14.txt 37 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_14.LAZ 210.0 MiB 20GZ2_14.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_14.txt 35 kiB
20GZ2_15 AHN1 20GZ2_15.LAZ 594 kiB 20GZ2_15.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_15.txt 10 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_15.LAZ 102.0 MiB 20GZ2_15.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_15.txt 15 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_15.LAZ 129.1 MiB 20GZ2_15.LAX 81 kiB 20GZ2_15.txt 16 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_15.LAZ 246.4 MiB 20GZ2_15.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_15.txt 17 kiB
20GZ2_16 AHN1 20GZ2_16.LAZ 905 kiB 20GZ2_16.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_16.txt 11 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_16.LAZ 116.9 MiB 20GZ2_16.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_16.txt 27 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_16.LAZ 152.9 MiB 20GZ2_16.LAX 84 kiB 20GZ2_16.txt 28 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_16.LAZ 323.6 MiB 20GZ2_16.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_16.txt 29 kiB
20GZ2_17 AHN1 20GZ2_17.LAZ 868 kiB 20GZ2_17.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_17.txt 10 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_17.LAZ 104.1 MiB 20GZ2_17.LAX 99 kiB 20GZ2_17.txt 17 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_17.LAZ 136.6 MiB 20GZ2_17.LAX 89 kiB 20GZ2_17.txt 18 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_17.LAZ 291.3 MiB 20GZ2_17.LAX 99 kiB 20GZ2_17.txt 19 kiB
20GZ2_18 AHN1 20GZ2_18.LAZ 785 kiB 20GZ2_18.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_18.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_18.LAZ 83.8 MiB 20GZ2_18.LAX 97 kiB 20GZ2_18.txt 21 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_18.LAZ 89.4 MiB 20GZ2_18.LAX 80 kiB 20GZ2_18.txt 21 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_18.LAZ 190.2 MiB 20GZ2_18.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_18.txt 12 kiB
20GZ2_19 AHN1 20GZ2_19.LAZ 741 kiB 20GZ2_19.LAX 4 kiB 20GZ2_19.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_19.LAZ 76.1 MiB 20GZ2_19.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_19.txt 22 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_19.LAZ 85.5 MiB 20GZ2_19.LAX 77 kiB 20GZ2_19.txt 19 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_19.LAZ 184.5 MiB 20GZ2_19.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_19.txt 16 kiB
20GZ2_20 AHN1 20GZ2_20.LAZ 756 kiB 20GZ2_20.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_20.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_20.LAZ 72.2 MiB 20GZ2_20.LAX 98 kiB 20GZ2_20.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_20.LAZ 109.5 MiB 20GZ2_20.LAX 89 kiB 20GZ2_20.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_20.LAZ 183.9 MiB 20GZ2_20.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_20.txt 13 kiB
20GZ2_21 AHN1 20GZ2_21.LAZ 832 kiB 20GZ2_21.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_21.txt 10 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_21.LAZ 115.9 MiB 20GZ2_21.LAX 94 kiB 20GZ2_21.txt 16 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_21.LAZ 157.4 MiB 20GZ2_21.LAX 91 kiB 20GZ2_21.txt 18 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_21.LAZ 334.7 MiB 20GZ2_21.LAX 97 kiB 20GZ2_21.txt 17 kiB
20GZ2_22 AHN1 20GZ2_22.LAZ 808 kiB 20GZ2_22.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_22.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_22.LAZ 79.8 MiB 20GZ2_22.LAX 97 kiB 20GZ2_22.txt 24 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_22.LAZ 88.8 MiB 20GZ2_22.LAX 85 kiB 20GZ2_22.txt 19 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_22.LAZ 201.5 MiB 20GZ2_22.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_22.txt 24 kiB
20GZ2_23 AHN1 20GZ2_23.LAZ 812 kiB 20GZ2_23.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_23.txt 5 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_23.LAZ 75.6 MiB 20GZ2_23.LAX 99 kiB 20GZ2_23.txt 6 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_23.LAZ 83.9 MiB 20GZ2_23.LAX 79 kiB 20GZ2_23.txt 6 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_23.LAZ 192.9 MiB 20GZ2_23.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_23.txt 7 kiB
20GZ2_24 AHN1 20GZ2_24.LAZ 794 kiB 20GZ2_24.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_24.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_24.LAZ 84.5 MiB 20GZ2_24.LAX 99 kiB 20GZ2_24.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_24.LAZ 81.1 MiB 20GZ2_24.LAX 76 kiB 20GZ2_24.txt 11 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_24.LAZ 193.3 MiB 20GZ2_24.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_24.txt 12 kiB
20GZ2_25 AHN1 20GZ2_25.LAZ 785 kiB 20GZ2_25.LAX 3 kiB 20GZ2_25.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 20GZ2_25.LAZ 83.5 MiB 20GZ2_25.LAX 99 kiB 20GZ2_25.txt 15 kiB
AHN3 20GZ2_25.LAZ 83.4 MiB 20GZ2_25.LAX 70 kiB 20GZ2_25.txt 16 kiB
AHN4 20GZ2_25.LAZ 197.4 MiB 20GZ2_25.LAX 100 kiB 20GZ2_25.txt 16 kiB

At the boundaries of its current availability, AHN4 is complemented with AHN3 to ensure full coverage.


No guarantee on availability, completeness, correctness or fitness for any particular purpose is implied by the distribution of or linking to this data. The license indicated with the products is to the best of my knowledge at the time of writing. Please confirm the applicable license with the source before integrating the data.