GeoTiles.nl

Map - Town index - Tile index


Relevant towns and neighbourhoods

Rijsenhout (woonkern)Vriezekoop (buurtschap)Leimuiden (woonkern)Aalsmeer (woonkern)Burgerveen (woonkern)Bilderdam (woonkern)Kudelstaart (woonkern)Leimuiderbrug (woonkern)Nieuw-Vennep (woonkern)'t Kabel (deelkern)

Tile 31AN2

Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland

Point cloud

The aerial photograph closest to the acquisition date of the AHN iteration was overlaid on the point cloud to produce a colored version for visualisation purposes. Furthermore, for each point cloud a spatial index and textual summary, including elevation histogram, are provided. Please note that the images are not from the same flight, and may be years off. Therefore, small alignment errors and differences occur between them.

Zoom in on the map to see tiled versions (25 tiles of 1×1.25 km). Tiled versions typically fit into memory (RAM) are easier to handle and are especially suitable for parallel processing and Machine Learning.

Version Point cloud Spatial index Info License
AHN1 Ground 31an2.laz.zip 14.5 MiB1 31an2.lax 34 kiB 31an2.txt 5 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Non-ground 31an2.laz.zip 1.0 MiB1 31an2.lax 50 kiB 31an2.txt 9 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Merged 31AN2.LAZ 15.6 MiB 31AN2.LAX 36 kiB 31AN2.txt 10 kiB Stuurgroep AHN (merged product by GeoTiles.nl)
Colored Available for sub-units only, zoom in to select. Remixed by GeoTiles.nl
AHN2 Ground g31an2.laz.zip 311.2 MiB1 g31an2.lax 233 kiB g31an2.txt 5 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Non-ground u31an2.laz.zip 75.7 MiB1 u31an2.lax 77 kiB u31an2.txt 11 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Merged 31AN2.LAZ 386.9 MiB 31AN2.LAX 706 kiB 31AN2.txt 11 kiB Stuurgroep AHN (merged product by GeoTiles.nl)
Colored Available for sub-units only, zoom in to select. Remixed by GeoTiles.nl
AHN3 Original C_31AN2.LAZ 1.8 GiB C_31AN2.LAX 1.9 MiB C_31AN2.txt 21 kiB Stuurgroep AHN, public domain
Colored Available for sub-units only, zoom in to select. Remixed by GeoTiles.nl
AHN4 Original C_31AN2.LAZ 5.7 GiB C_31AN2.LAX 1.9 MiB C_31AN2.txt 20 kiB Het Waterschapshuis, public domain
Colored (Partially) available for sub-units. Remixed by GeoTiles.nl

1Size of the .laz file, contained in the archive.

2The point cloud is in the public domain and the aerial photograph available under CC-BY. However, the colored point cloud is a new product created by GeoTiles.nl.

File checksums (md5) are available for AHN1, AHN2 and AHN3.

Raster

Version DSM DTM ('maaiveld') License
5 meter ½ meter 5 meter ½ meter
AHN1 31an2.tif.zip public domain
AHN2 r31an2.tif.zip ahn2_5_31an2.tif.zip i31an2.tif.zip public domain *
AHN3 R5_31AN2.ZIP R_31AN2.ZIP M5_31AN2.ZIP M_31AN2.ZIP CC-0
AHN4 R5_31AN2.zip R_31AN2.zip M5_31AN2.zip M_31AN2.zip CC-0 [1, 2, 3, 4]

InSAR

Orbit CSV License
Ascending, 015
Ascending, 088 31AN2.csv.xz 10.1 MiB 31AN2.csv Rijkswaterstaat, CC-0
Ascending, 161 31AN2.csv.xz 11.2 MiB 31AN2.csv Rijkswaterstaat, CC-0
Descending, 037 31AN2.csv.xz 12.0 MiB 31AN2.csv Rijkswaterstaat, CC-0
Descending, 110 31AN2.csv.xz 10.5 MiB 31AN2.csv Rijkswaterstaat, CC-0
Descending, 139

Official documentation is only available in Dutch. Malformed rows, that do not adhere to the format as specified in the documentation, were removed from the data.

Data is compressed with xz-compression. Tools like Pandas are able to read those files transparently. Users of other tools may wish to decompress the files first. Windows users may use 7-Zip, Linux users are likely to have the unxz command available on their machine already.Uncompressed, equivalent, archives are hosted by Rijkswaterstaat.

Aerial photograph

Year Version GeoTiff Source License
2016 RGB RGB_31AN2.tiff 58.3 MiB Beeldmateriaal, nlextract.nl CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_31AN2.tiff 55.1 MiB CC-BY 4.0
2017 RGB RGB_31AN2.tiff 55.9 MiB Beeldmateriaal, nlextract.nl CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_31AN2.tiff 53.9 MiB CC-BY 4.0
2018 RGB RGB_31AN2.tiff 61.9 MiB Beeldmateriaal, nlextract.nl CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_31AN2.tiff 60.0 MiB CC-BY 4.0
2019 RGB RGB_31AN2.tiff 54.6 MiB Beeldmateriaal CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_31AN2.tiff 49.7 MiB CC-BY 4.0
2020 RGB RGB_31AN2.tiff 58.5 MiB Beeldmateriaal CC-BY 4.0
CIR CIR_31AN2.tiff 53.6 MiB CC-BY 4.0

Sub-tiles 31AN2

Image adapted from OpenTopo.

Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland

Point cloud

These sub-tiles of 1×1.25 km are clipped from the original point cloud. Goal is to enable distributed processing of the point cloud. Therefore, a 25 m overlap to the neighbouring (sub-)tiles is added. Thanks to the overlap between sub-tiles, the sub-tiles can be processed independently and therefore parallel.

All other data sets on this website are only available in the main tiling schema.

Tile Version Point cloud Spatial index Info Residential areas License
31AN2_01 AHN1 31AN2_01.LAZ 734 kiB 31AN2_01.LAX 3 kiB 31AN2_01.txt 7 kiB Nieuw-Vennep, 't Kabel AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_01.LAZ 29.6 MiB 31AN2_01.LAX 20 kiB 31AN2_01.txt 9 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_01.LAZ 117.4 MiB 31AN2_01.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_01.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_01.LAZ 341.5 MiB 31AN2_01.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_01.txt 14 kiB
31AN2_02 AHN1 31AN2_02.LAZ 693 kiB 31AN2_02.LAX 3 kiB 31AN2_02.txt 7 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_02.LAZ 31.1 MiB 31AN2_02.LAX 23 kiB 31AN2_02.txt 8 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_02.LAZ 121.8 MiB 31AN2_02.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_02.txt 9 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_02.LAZ 368.7 MiB 31AN2_02.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_02.txt 12 kiB
31AN2_03 AHN1 31AN2_03.LAZ 639 kiB 31AN2_03.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_03.txt 8 kiB Rijsenhout AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_03.LAZ 54.9 MiB 31AN2_03.LAX 48 kiB 31AN2_03.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_03.LAZ 126.8 MiB 31AN2_03.LAX 99 kiB 31AN2_03.txt 10 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_03.LAZ 370.2 MiB 31AN2_03.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_03.txt 13 kiB
31AN2_04 AHN1 31AN2_04.LAZ 523 kiB 31AN2_04.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_04.txt 8 kiB Rijsenhout AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_04.LAZ 50.8 MiB 31AN2_04.LAX 36 kiB 31AN2_04.txt 11 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_04.LAZ 137.9 MiB 31AN2_04.LAX 92 kiB 31AN2_04.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_04.LAZ 395.7 MiB 31AN2_04.LAX 94 kiB 31AN2_04.txt 15 kiB
31AN2_05 AHN1 31AN2_05.LAZ 350 kiB 31AN2_05.LAX 3 kiB 31AN2_05.txt 8 kiB Aalsmeer, Rijsenhout AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_05.LAZ 43.1 MiB 31AN2_05.LAX 27 kiB 31AN2_05.txt 11 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_05.LAZ 144.0 MiB 31AN2_05.LAX 88 kiB 31AN2_05.txt 13 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_05.LAZ 382.2 MiB 31AN2_05.LAX 96 kiB 31AN2_05.txt 15 kiB
31AN2_06 AHN1 31AN2_06.LAZ 630 kiB 31AN2_06.LAX 3 kiB 31AN2_06.txt 7 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_06.LAZ 29.4 MiB 31AN2_06.LAX 20 kiB 31AN2_06.txt 11 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_06.LAZ 111.8 MiB 31AN2_06.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_06.txt 17 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_06.LAZ 363.1 MiB 31AN2_06.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_06.txt 18 kiB
31AN2_07 AHN1 31AN2_07.LAZ 703 kiB 31AN2_07.LAX 3 kiB 31AN2_07.txt 8 kiB Burgerveen AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_07.LAZ 41.5 MiB 31AN2_07.LAX 33 kiB 31AN2_07.txt 9 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_07.LAZ 133.5 MiB 31AN2_07.LAX 98 kiB 31AN2_07.txt 10 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_07.LAZ 377.7 MiB 31AN2_07.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_07.txt 12 kiB
31AN2_08 AHN1 31AN2_08.LAZ 480 kiB 31AN2_08.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_08.txt 7 kiB Rijsenhout, Burgerveen AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_08.LAZ 55.7 MiB 31AN2_08.LAX 54 kiB 31AN2_08.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_08.LAZ 107.1 MiB 31AN2_08.LAX 81 kiB 31AN2_08.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_08.LAZ 293.5 MiB 31AN2_08.LAX 87 kiB 31AN2_08.txt 14 kiB
31AN2_09 AHN1 31AN2_09.LAZ 217 kiB 31AN2_09.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_09.txt 8 kiB Rijsenhout AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_09.LAZ 22.5 MiB 31AN2_09.LAX 19 kiB 31AN2_09.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_09.LAZ 68.7 MiB 31AN2_09.LAX 53 kiB 31AN2_09.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_09.LAZ 171.9 MiB 31AN2_09.LAX 63 kiB 31AN2_09.txt 14 kiB
31AN2_10 AHN1 31AN2_10.LAZ 77 kiB 31AN2_10.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_10.txt 6 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_10.LAZ 9.1 MiB 31AN2_10.LAX 11 kiB 31AN2_10.txt 9 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_10.LAZ 44.0 MiB 31AN2_10.LAX 18 kiB 31AN2_10.txt 11 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_10.LAZ 110.7 MiB 31AN2_10.LAX 58 kiB 31AN2_10.txt 13 kiB
31AN2_11 AHN1 31AN2_11.LAZ 776 kiB 31AN2_11.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_11.txt 12 kiB Leimuiden, Leimuiderbrug AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_11.LAZ 30.3 MiB 31AN2_11.LAX 20 kiB 31AN2_11.txt 11 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_11.LAZ 119.7 MiB 31AN2_11.LAX 98 kiB 31AN2_11.txt 22 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_11.LAZ 334.9 MiB 31AN2_11.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_11.txt 20 kiB
31AN2_12 AHN1 31AN2_12.LAZ 553 kiB 31AN2_12.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_12.txt 10 kiB Burgerveen, Leimuiden, Leimuiderbrug AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_12.LAZ 24.6 MiB 31AN2_12.LAX 23 kiB 31AN2_12.txt 11 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_12.LAZ 108.0 MiB 31AN2_12.LAX 84 kiB 31AN2_12.txt 13 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_12.LAZ 274.6 MiB 31AN2_12.LAX 93 kiB 31AN2_12.txt 16 kiB
31AN2_13 AHN1 31AN2_13.LAZ 549 kiB 31AN2_13.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_13.txt 8 kiB Leimuiden AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_13.LAZ 25.0 MiB 31AN2_13.LAX 27 kiB 31AN2_13.txt 9 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_13.LAZ 49.1 MiB 31AN2_13.LAX 47 kiB 31AN2_13.txt 10 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_13.LAZ 162.1 MiB 31AN2_13.LAX 74 kiB 31AN2_13.txt 12 kiB
31AN2_14 AHN1 31AN2_14.LAZ 1.3 MiB 31AN2_14.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_14.txt 9 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_14.LAZ 31.0 MiB 31AN2_14.LAX 26 kiB 31AN2_14.txt 9 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_14.LAZ 80.4 MiB 31AN2_14.LAX 67 kiB 31AN2_14.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_14.LAZ 255.6 MiB 31AN2_14.LAX 87 kiB 31AN2_14.txt 12 kiB
31AN2_15 AHN1 31AN2_15.LAZ 1.0 MiB 31AN2_15.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_15.txt 10 kiB Kudelstaart AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_15.LAZ 27.3 MiB 31AN2_15.LAX 24 kiB 31AN2_15.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_15.LAZ 87.1 MiB 31AN2_15.LAX 65 kiB 31AN2_15.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_15.LAZ 257.4 MiB 31AN2_15.LAX 85 kiB 31AN2_15.txt 13 kiB
31AN2_16 AHN1 31AN2_16.LAZ 2.4 MiB 31AN2_16.LAX 5 kiB 31AN2_16.txt 11 kiB Leimuiden AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_16.LAZ 28.6 MiB 31AN2_16.LAX 20 kiB 31AN2_16.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_16.LAZ 124.4 MiB 31AN2_16.LAX 97 kiB 31AN2_16.txt 13 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_16.LAZ 330.4 MiB 31AN2_16.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_16.txt 15 kiB
31AN2_17 AHN1 31AN2_17.LAZ 2.3 MiB 31AN2_17.LAX 5 kiB 31AN2_17.txt 10 kiB Leimuiden, Vriezekoop AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_17.LAZ 44.5 MiB 31AN2_17.LAX 40 kiB 31AN2_17.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_17.LAZ 130.5 MiB 31AN2_17.LAX 97 kiB 31AN2_17.txt 15 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_17.LAZ 344.9 MiB 31AN2_17.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_17.txt 18 kiB
31AN2_18 AHN1 31AN2_18.LAZ 2.1 MiB 31AN2_18.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_18.txt 10 kiB Vriezekoop, Leimuiden AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_18.LAZ 73.3 MiB 31AN2_18.LAX 69 kiB 31AN2_18.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_18.LAZ 114.2 MiB 31AN2_18.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_18.txt 13 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_18.LAZ 295.1 MiB 31AN2_18.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_18.txt 15 kiB
31AN2_19 AHN1 31AN2_19.LAZ 2.2 MiB 31AN2_19.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_19.txt 10 kiB Vriezekoop AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_19.LAZ 48.9 MiB 31AN2_19.LAX 39 kiB 31AN2_19.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_19.LAZ 123.9 MiB 31AN2_19.LAX 99 kiB 31AN2_19.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_19.LAZ 346.7 MiB 31AN2_19.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_19.txt 14 kiB
31AN2_20 AHN1 31AN2_20.LAZ 2.1 MiB 31AN2_20.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_20.txt 8 kiB Vriezekoop AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_20.LAZ 46.7 MiB 31AN2_20.LAX 37 kiB 31AN2_20.txt 7 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_20.LAZ 133.6 MiB 31AN2_20.LAX 99 kiB 31AN2_20.txt 9 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_20.LAZ 305.3 MiB 31AN2_20.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_20.txt 11 kiB
31AN2_21 AHN1 31AN2_21.LAZ 1.9 MiB 31AN2_21.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_21.txt 11 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_21.LAZ 25.0 MiB 31AN2_21.LAX 19 kiB 31AN2_21.txt 10 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_21.LAZ 103.5 MiB 31AN2_21.LAX 92 kiB 31AN2_21.txt 13 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_21.LAZ 321.0 MiB 31AN2_21.LAX 92 kiB 31AN2_21.txt 15 kiB
31AN2_22 AHN1 31AN2_22.LAZ 2.2 MiB 31AN2_22.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_22.txt 9 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_22.LAZ 30.7 MiB 31AN2_22.LAX 24 kiB 31AN2_22.txt 9 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_22.LAZ 114.8 MiB 31AN2_22.LAX 99 kiB 31AN2_22.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_22.LAZ 289.6 MiB 31AN2_22.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_22.txt 14 kiB
31AN2_23 AHN1 31AN2_23.LAZ 2.1 MiB 31AN2_23.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_23.txt 8 kiB AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_23.LAZ 62.6 MiB 31AN2_23.LAX 57 kiB 31AN2_23.txt 9 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_23.LAZ 110.1 MiB 31AN2_23.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_23.txt 8 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_23.LAZ 310.4 MiB 31AN2_23.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_23.txt 10 kiB
31AN2_24 AHN1 31AN2_24.LAZ 2.1 MiB 31AN2_24.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_24.txt 9 kiB Vriezekoop AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_24.LAZ 62.3 MiB 31AN2_24.LAX 47 kiB 31AN2_24.txt 11 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_24.LAZ 116.2 MiB 31AN2_24.LAX 98 kiB 31AN2_24.txt 12 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_24.LAZ 308.7 MiB 31AN2_24.LAX 100 kiB 31AN2_24.txt 13 kiB
31AN2_25 AHN1 31AN2_25.LAZ 2.0 MiB 31AN2_25.LAX 4 kiB 31AN2_25.txt 9 kiB Vriezekoop, Bilderdam AHN (stuurgroep AHN, public data) and aerial photograph (Beeldmateriaal, CC-BY) remixed by GeoTiles.nl, CC-BY
AHN2 31AN2_25.LAZ 70.3 MiB 31AN2_25.LAX 57 kiB 31AN2_25.txt 12 kiB
AHN3 31AN2_25.LAZ 134.2 MiB 31AN2_25.LAX 97 kiB 31AN2_25.txt 10 kiB
AHN4 31AN2_25.LAZ 314.5 MiB 31AN2_25.LAX 97 kiB 31AN2_25.txt 13 kiB

At the boundaries of its current availability, AHN4 is complemented with AHN3 to ensure full coverage.


No guarantee on availability, completeness, correctness or fitness for any particular purpose is implied by the distribution of or linking to this data. The license indicated with the products is to the best of my knowledge at the time of writing. Please confirm the applicable license with the source before integrating the data.